Weighing Up The Scales: Does Your Left-Hand Know What The Right-Hand Is Doing?

So, a while back, I was teaching a bit of compositional theory (as you do) and I asked the students a seemingly outrageous question: “What is the purpose of the harmonic minor scale? Why is there a raised 7th in there?”

Blank looks.

But I was not deterred and thought I’d push them even further… “OK, what about the melodic minor scale? A raised 7th AND a raised 6th.”



Tumbleweed, and a bell tolling in the distance…

Now, this isn’t the first time I’ve asked the music students that question. And it certainly wasn’t the first time it was met with silence. In fact, no student has ever been able to tell me why these scales are there. So, I carried on…

“OK, has it ever ocurred to you, when you’re doing your ABRSM exams to ask WHY am I learning these things? Or, what they’re there for, these scales?”

Nope. No one.

But, to be fair, I sometimes I get the response: “Well, the melodic minor is more ‘melodic’.”

“Um… OK… more melodic than what?” I usually reply.

Anyway, to cut a very long and boring story short, I eventually coax out a response that explains away the raised 7th as the major third of chord V in a minor key, and the raised 6th as the major third in chord IV of the key. But in fact, you’d be hard pushed to find an instance where the melodic minor scale is used ‘as written’; up and down. It certainly isn’t used like this in improvisational theory and I’ve never encountered anyone extolling its merits thusly in a composition class.

Also, the ‘melodic minor descending’ is not its real name. This scale is a backwards version of ‘the scale formerly known as the natural minor scale‘. The melodic minor ascending and descending is really just a Frankenstein’s monster kinda scale; that random assemblage being someone’s idea of a good thing.

Frankenstein’s monster
The Melodic Minor Scale…

Now, and this is the problem, classical music education tends to ignore the purpose of scales and their functions in creating music. Of course, the accent in our system has always been on performing not creating, but a little knowledge goes a long way. I usually ask the students to ask their instrumental teachers if they know anything about the minor scales they learn. After all, they are the people who usually have to teach them the Grade syllabus. The answers are usually very similar to their own: ‘more melodic’, ‘ask your theory teacher’ or ‘never mind that just now, play it again’.

However, jazz instrumental teachers are different, they know what scales are for. They’re there for making stuff up with. Darn right. Having said that, some older jazzers don’t know what the scales are, nor do they care, because everything has been learned by ear. Joe Pass is a good example of the non-theorectial approach, but this is much out-dated nowadays as the material for learning is so readily available in the institutions and online. Not so in Joe’s day.

Screen Shot 2020-03-31 at 11.30.51
Old-skool thinker and jazz-knitwear wearer, the god-like Joe Pass

In classical tuition, scales are taught alongside the music. In jazz tuition, they ARE the music. This all comes down to learning your trade, and what the job requirements are, and, ironically, classical music-making loses out simply because you don’t need to make stuff up. You’re a ‘vessel’ to be filled by the person with the filling-up stuff (ie. us composers). You don’t need to know what’s going on, you just need to make it look like you do. I’m not saying it’s easy, or unimportant, it’s just that… wouldn’t it be better to be able to understand things a bit more?

As an aside, I can remember being on a classical guitar course when a visiting performer was invited to ‘jam’ with a few of the punters. It turned out that said artiste did not know any chords beyond first position. I was stunned.

But back to the issue. When I teach the major scale modes I always teach them in terms of either a major scale (with alterations) or a natural minor scale (with alterations). Then I discuss their usage in composition; what chords they can be used over etc etc. It’s pointless talking about the Lydian mode without reference to it’s use over major 7th chords and their extensions; the ♯11 is the logical extension of the triadic construct of maj3rd, minor 3rd, major 3rd, minor 3rd etc.

Yikes! But actually not scary when you understand the magic…

It is also interesting to see that the last of the 12 tones to become ‘revealed’ in this additive manner (ie major 3 – minor3 etc…) is the F♮- an avoid note in improvising over Lydian tonalities.

So, my point is this. Theory is always presented as being dry and boring. That’s because people forget how important the ways in which knowledge can be presented actually is. Context is everything. And the simpler it can be explained the better.

With that in mind: I can remember at a lecture at the wonderful and now sadly defunct Dartington College of Arts when the tutor Max Paddison (then, and now, a highly regarded Adorno specialist) said: “You know, WHY is often the best question to ask.” Seems obvious now…

To sum up… you may be a self-taught, singer-songwriter type and ignorant of all this. Fine. You may be Paul McCartney. But just remember it’s always more fun to know what you’re doing when you’re doing it. Otherwise you run the risk of being misunderstood; your metaphorical rocket missing your imaginary moon, or, at the very least, look a bit silly in my composition class.


Follow Your Leaders? Revisionist Jazz @ The Lincoln Centre

A couple of years back, while on holiday in NYC with the fam, I went to see the Willie Jones III Quintet in The Dizzy’s Club Coca Cola at the Lincoln Centre. The Dave Holland Trio (w/ Kevin Eubanks) were at the Village Vanguard downtown on the same evening but they don’t let kids in, at Dizzy’s you can be over 7 years old and they’ll take your money. Continue reading “Follow Your Leaders? Revisionist Jazz @ The Lincoln Centre”

Michael Brecker’s ‘Itsbynne Reel’ – The Chromatic Stuff

We’re all Michael Brecker fans here, aren’t we? I mean, what’s not to like? The man was regarded as one of the greatest saxophonists of his generation, and has a back catalogue of albums, both as leader and sideman, that is largely unchallenged both in its diversity and musical accomplishments. Whether we knew it or not, we’ve all heard his playing – through his sessions with mainstreamers like Paul Simon, Christopher Cross, James Taylor, Billy Joel or Dire Straits, or through his jazz collaborations with brother Randy, Pat Metheny, Gary Burton, Steps Ahead etc etc. But his solo albums are fantastic as well, particularly the early ones: the self-titled debut Michael Brecker (1987), Now You See It, Now You Don’t (1990) and the album where Itsbynne Reel found its home: his second album Don’t Try This At Home (1988) on Impulse Records. Continue reading “Michael Brecker’s ‘Itsbynne Reel’ – The Chromatic Stuff”

The ‘Musical Ear’: What Is It? And Do We Need To Test It?

You’ll know from my other blogs on music education that I’m of the opinion that a lot of what is being examined in our young musicians (and mature ones, taking the dreaded graded exam journey) is outdated and irrelevant. The system has remained much the same for over 80 years, and shows no signs of changing anytime soon. Most academic exam systems have changed over the years, so why have music exams (and I’m looking at you ABRSM) staunchly remained the same all of this time? Continue reading “The ‘Musical Ear’: What Is It? And Do We Need To Test It?”

Music Appreciation: A Dying Art Or A Missed Opportunity…?

Over the past year, or so, I’ve been thinking about how we educate our young people in music.

People that know me will no doubt be aware of my views on some aspects of music education that I consider negligible in worth (ie. scales and aural tests in ABRSM exams, the Kodaly method and other similar academic delusions) but the topic that I want to talk about today is ‘music appreciation’. Continue reading “Music Appreciation: A Dying Art Or A Missed Opportunity…?”

The Death Of Progressive Rock: Addendum

Following my post 1979: The Death Of Progressive Rock & The Jazz/Folk/Acoustic Amalgam, I began to think more about what I’d written. Was I being too hard on the Prog scene by saying it was virtually dead by 1979? Surely there was some life in it yet? But then I thought, what does the sentimental side of me say about this? It said ‘no, you were not’. And my logical side, of course, agreed. Continue reading “The Death Of Progressive Rock: Addendum”